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søndag 22. desember 2013

Updated Europe Analysis

(Updated 26/12-2013) This is the first updated Europe analysis using the "superindividual" approach where all individuals not of interest is group into the "other" group. Just as in the Fennoscanda analysis it appear to give added resolution to the results.

The chunkcount heatmap show much the same as in previous analysis but the new cluster seen in the Fennoscandia analysis also appear here. Chunkcounts is the total number of identical and related segments of DNA between any individual. The intensity of the colors on the heatmap and the closeness in the tree branch indicate relatedness to other individuals or groups.

CC Aggregated Europe linked 289k

 CC Raw Europe linked 289k 

The PCA overview of Europe appears to be better than previous analysis by using superindividual grouping for "others". We can now for example see a clear differentiation between Finns and Saamis in dimension 3 horizontal and dimension vertical 4. The differentiation in dimension 4 appears to be that Saamis pull to the same level as the Basque and Sardinians in this axis. 

CC Europe PCA Overview linked 289k

CC Europe PCA Individuals linked 289k

The PCA components presented in geographical heatmaps:

Dimension 1 - external peaks in Finns. Opposite Spanish, Sardinians and Romanians. What source "Others" is is not known but appears to be close.

Dimension 2 - external peaks in Albanians, Mordovians, Vologa Russians and Saamis. Opposite Scandinavians. May suggest a non-European influence that have arrived far north and far south into Europe or/and foundereffect among Scandinavians.

Dimension 3 - internal peaks in Finns and Saamis. Opposite Basque and Sardinians. May reflect expansion of agriculture to Europe.

Dimension 4 - internal peaks in Lithuanians, Mordovians, Belorussians, Ukranians. Opposite Basque Sardinians and Saamis. May reflect Eastern European expansion and/or foundereffect. The ancestry sharing along the Western European shores from Iberians to the Saamis may suggest old coastal migrations from the south to the north.

Dimension 5 - internal peaks among Scandinavians and Saamis. Opposite Basque, Sardinians, Spanish and Finns. This may show an agricultural expansion from South-East Europe to Finland.

Dimension 6 - internal peaks among Basque and secondary Saami. Opposite Sardinians. May suggest a common autosomal link between Saamis and Basque.

Dimension 7 - internal peaks among Saamis and secondary Sardinians. Opposite British and Vologda Russians. Appears specific to Saamis as rest of Europe appears quite uniform except for the Sardinians.

(Analysis in progress)

9 kommentarer:

  1. Thank you for your work Anders.
    From what I see I am next to the British
    As I was expecting to see

    U is for which country? It's certainly very logical, but I don't see

    1. U's are dispora individuals with mixed European ancestry, usually americans.

  2. Just noticed that my comment was by mistake written on the nordic, not european side of the analysis, which was my aim, sorry about that. Best, Fi14

    1. To your comment on the recent Fennoscandian post. As I understand this PCA plot it describes internal variation in Europe. The reason why I only have presented from dimension 3 and higher is that dimension 1 and 2 appears to refer to external influences that peak in the "othern" superindividual containing the rest of the world panel not included in the Europe analysis. In dimension 1 Finns appears to be closest to the "Other" category and the Spanish and some other southern populations appears the most distant. Here FI14 is the closest to the "Others". Saamis doesnt appear among FInns in the dimension but appears closer to the middle of the European panel. In dimension 2 on the other hand Vologda Russians, Saamis and Mordovians appears to domeniate while Scandinavians appears most distant to this "other" dimension. I suspect it may have something to do with the Siberian like ancestry that appears higher among these. I have currently not managed to locate the source for the external influence affecting Finns especially in the Europe panel.

    2. Interesting, many thanks for the answer.

  3. Why are our small group of Fennoscandians (I'm SWE38) so far away from the larger group of mainly Swedes and Norwegians in picture 1 and 2? Are we more closely related to other Europeans than with them? To which one of the Fennoscandian groups does the Norrlänningar cluster belong?

    1. The branches can be switched so that the Finns, Samis and your group move together up to and beside the Scandinavians. Its very clear if looking at the color intesities and the PCA that your group is a mixed group between Scandinavians and Finns.

  4. West finns seems to show more affination to swedes than to balts and russians. This study from European journal of Human Genetics about Y-STR and mt-DNA markers also support this find.!po=2.00000

    The subsequent Scandinavian gene flow has then affected the genetic composition of the south-western as well as the northernmost parts of Finland only, creating the large Y-chromosomal differences between western and eastern parts of the country.