Its time for a new ancient gotlander analysis using 22k, this time using the same reference panel and individuals as in the 289k analysis. However as 22k SNP's is a rather small number of SNP's the resolutation is much smaller and we will see that populations blend more into each other. In addition the ancient gotlander also affect the analysis because of these individuals unique genetic variation.
We will first look at the individual chunkcount aggregated heatmap. Much is familiar from previous analysis. We see generally that the modern populations to less extent paint there chromosome with the ancient gotlanders than the ancient gotlander paint the chromosome with the modern populations. This is a sign that the ancient gotlanders and modern populations have very different haplotypes because of divergence in time and difference in genetics. If we included a single San individual from Africa in the analysis we would probably see the same.
In the PCA plots we see that the ancient gotlanders place themself in dimension 1-2 in between the Vologda Russians to the left, Lithuanians to the right, the Estonians to the upper right. This seems to indicate that the geographical close populations of Lithuanians and Vologda Russians.
However if we look at the ancient gotlanders position in dimension 1-3 we find the ancient gotlanders close to part of the Finns to the left and close below to one Saami SWE7 and a few Scandinavian-Saami mixed individuals. This make it difficult to explain the ancient gotlanders only in the context of Lithuanians and Vologda Russians. Also in lower dimensions the ancient gotlander is in its own space seperate from the modern populations suggesting it has variance not seen in any current populations.
As we can see the plots are much more fuzzy than in the analysis we have seen earlier using 289k SNP's so it is very possible that we see large variations at the individual level. If we average the number of chunkcounts we see a clearer picture of affiliation. We see here that the Saamis appear to show the largest affiliation on average as both donor and receiver to the ancient gotlanders.
If we try to see these distributions geographically we appear to see that the ancient gotlander appear to affiliate with the more remote parts of the continent while the more central continent with the exception of the French appear to be the most different from the ancient gotlanders.
We also see a strange and a very different affiliation between the Finnish groups. West-Finns appears to affilaite well while the East-Finns appears to affilaite very little even when close populations like Estonians, Vologda Russians and Saamis appear to show affiliation. At the time beeing I cant explain this difference.
As the map suggests below maybe there have been a later genetic expansion to the north from maybe more south-weas European contries that have changed the genetic landscape since the time of the ancient gotlanders especially to the south-south-east.