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torsdag 13. februar 2014

Europeans and Native Americans

Updated 14/02/2014 with individual results PCA plots

This is a furter investigation of the previous posts about East-Asian influences in Europe. This time I have extended the earlier studies by adding Native Americans. The results appears as expected but also contain unexpected results.

The first dimension in this new Finestructure run we have seen before several times in the previous run and peak on one side among Northern Europeans and the other among South-East Asians and especially Papuans/Melanasians. It will not be discussed more here.

The second dimension (X-asis below) on the other hand clearly separate Europeans from Native Americans, Siberians and East-Asians. The third dimension separate on the other hand Native Americans from East-Asians with the Siberians between.

Dimension 2 (X-axis/horizontal) and 3 (Y-axis/vertical)

If we zoom on the European panel we see as expected that especially Saamis, Mordovians and Vologda Russians pulls left toward the common East-Asian, Siberian and Native American dimension 2. Note that Finns doesn't show the same level of pull towards left as the Saamis, Mordovians and Vologda Russians.

 Dimension 2 (X-axis/horizontal) and 3 (Y-axis/vertical) zoomed Europe

Individual results D2-D3 as above

However if looking at dimension 3 /(vertical) we clearly see Saamis and Finns pulling towards the Native Americans dimension at about same level of intensity. It appears to be lacking among Vologda Russians and Mordovians who pull toward the common East-Asian, Siberian and Native American dimension 2 (horizontal). This seem to suggest (also noted by commentators of this blog from ealier posts) that there is different influences from the East in Europe.

If we move on to dimension 4 (vertical, keeping dimension 2 at horizontal). This is the same dimension as seen in the usual European PCA plot regularly seen on this blog with the charactaristic "V" shape. This is the branch (top) with Finns and Saamis and with Sardinians and Basque at the root (bottom). As we can see Siberians, East-Asians and Native Americans appear to cluster consistent separately vertical along the "European" dimension. I would guess the informed reader would agree without much thought what we see on the top with Siberians being placed at the same level with Saamis and Finns at the upper part of vertical dimension in the plot.

  Dimension 2 (X-axis/horizontal) and 4 (Y-axis/vertical) zoomed Europe

Individual results D2-D4as above zommed into Europe

However if we move down to the middle we see the cluster of East-Asian group. If we from this vertical level move horizontally toward right we see that this "East-Asian" level actually end up with the Mordovians, Vologda Russians, Russians and many Lithuanians with other Eastern Europeans in close proximity. This clustering is also difficult to explain but its striking that the East-Asians appear to fix among at least certain Eastern Europeans given known history of the area.

If we move even further down we reach the Native Americans and if we move right from the vertical level of the Native Americans we will meet Southern European populations like Italians, Basque and Sardinians. This appears to me to a big surprise I find difficult to explain. I have been thinking the thought of post-1492 admixture among Native Americans but these samples have been screened for outside admixture before included in the analysis.

4 kommentarer:

  1. Interesting. Based on many recent papers I've started to think that the "Siberian" element in Russia isn't the same that appears in Fennoscandia and this supports my suspicions. The difference between Mordovians and Finns likely means there's no single common "eastern" marker in Uralic speakers.

    Just one question for clarification, when you talk about dimensions 4 and 5, do you mean 3 and 4? The PCA's are labelled for 2&3 and 2&4.

    1. Thanks for the notice. The first PCA is D2-D3 and the second is D2-D4. No D5. Corrected.

    2. Cheers!

      In the paragraph below the European zoom on dimension 2/3 PCA it probably should mention dimension 3 and not 4 as the vertical dimension.

      As a project member it'd also be cool to see a bigger zoom on the PCA's to better see the positions.

      This native american like element seems to be quite old since it has so limited distribution. Maybe soon someone manages to sequence mesolithic remains from Fennoscandia completely enough for to measure accurately whether it was present then.

    3. I have added individual results for both PCA plots.